Wilko Bolt and Sujit “Bob” Chakravorti Bio

Wilko Bolt is a Senior Economist in the research department at De Nederlandsche Bank in Amsterdam. He received his PhD in economics from the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam. His current research focuses on the economics of payments and the theory of two-sided markets and its antitrust implications. He has published in journals such as American Economic Review, European Economic Review, International Journal of Industrial Organization, and Journal of Banking and Finance. His book ‘Credible Threats in Negotiations: A Game-theoretic Approach’, written jointly with Harold Houba, was published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 2002. In 2007, Bolt was awarded the biannual Hennipman Prize by the Dutch Royal Economic Association for best article in its journal De Economist during 2005-2006.


Sujit “Bob” Chakravorti is a senior economist in the Financial Markets Group at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and has been analyzing retail and wholesale payment systems for over 20 years. He has published over 30 articles in industry, academic, and Federal Reserve publications including the Antitrust Bulletin, Journal of Money Credit and Banking, Journal of Payments Strategy and Systems, and the Review of Network Economics. Prior to joining the Federal Reserve System, he worked at KPMG as an international economist advising foreign governments on financial market policy. In addition, he has been a visiting scholar at De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch central bank), the European University Institute, the International Monetary Fund, and the University of Granada.  He received a B.A. in economics and genetics from the University of California- Berkeley and M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Brown University.